JACK-UP RIGS AND HOW THEY WORK

JACK UP RIG

A jack-up rig is a type of drilling rig used at offshore locations. It is made up of a barge (or hull) and legs that can be lowered or raised onto the seafloor which will provide support for the main parts of the rig. There are different classes of drilling rigs and the jack-up rig belongs to the class known as Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU).

The use of MODUs is mainly for offshore locations for the exploration of hydrocarbons. And the jack-up rig is one of the most popular among the mobile offshore drilling units. They are also the preferred drilling rig choice for shallow waters (i.e 300 ft) to somewhat deep waters (about 550 ft).

When an offshore location is determined, the jack-up rig is then moved to that location. The legs of the rig are raised above the water and the barge section is allowed to float freely. At the proposed drilling location, the rig legs are then lowered onto the seafloor.

Understanding the Jack-up Rig

The term “jack-up” comes from the process of rig mobilization. When the rig legs are raised during movement, it is said to be in a “jack-up” position. While when the legs are lowered, the rig is said to be in a “jack down” position. 

Most jack-up rigs have 3 legs, however, there are jack-up rigs consisting of 4, 6 or 8 legs. The barge of the jack-up rig also has holes that allow the legs of the rig to be raised or lowered as required. There are two types of elevating devices used in jack-up rigs that enable the up and down movement of the rig. They are the hydraulic cylinders and the rack.

TYPES OF JACK-UP RIGS

The types of jack-up rigs that exist are based on how they rest on the seafloor. There are two types of jack-up rigs: the independent-legged jack-up and the mat-supported jack-up. 

The independent-legged jack-up rigs have cylindrically shaped steel shoes with pointed ends known as spud cans. The pointed ends of the spud cans drive into the ocean floor to give support and rig stability.

The mat-supported jack-up rig attaches an A-shaped steel shoe to the bottom of the legs. The legs rest firmly on the seafloor rather than penetrating the seafloor as is the case of the independent-legged jack-up rig. 

oil workers should follow safety tips at all times

Well Drilling Problems

As much as the oil and gas industry is fun, there are some problems that exist in the field. One area that experiences problems regularly is the drilling section. Some drilling problems include hole instability, lost circulation, doglegs, key seats, excessive bottom-hole temperatures, etc.

Hole Instability

When encountered formations slough, swell or flow, it is said to have hole instability. Shales and salt beds are some of the most unstable holes. Some causes of hole instability are pore pressure, earth’s movement forces, overburden pressure, and water absorption.

Hole instability occurs when there is a change in the relief of the overburden pressure and it exceeds the yield strength of the drill formation. This then results in the flow of the formation. Blowouts can occur when there is a really high pore pressure in the highly permeable formation. Structural stress can also cause hole instability. By using the proper drilling fluid, hole instability can be avoided.

Doglegs

No, we don’t mean actual doglegs. A dogleg is referred to as any deviation greater than 3” per 100ft in a wellbore and this happens when there’s a sharp change in direction in the wellbore. It is also caused by a change in the dip of the formation or when there’s a change in the weight applied to the bit. There are many results to a severe dogleg happening, they include drill pipe failure, stuck casing, and inability to run casing to total depth. However, there are ways to minimize the formation of doglegs such as large diameter drill collars, proper weight applied to the bit and by using properly placed stabilizers.

Key Seats

These form as a result of doglegs. When there is a channel or groove cut at the side of a hole which is parallel to the axis of the hole, a key seat is formed. One major cause of this groove is the dragging of a drill pipe through the sharp bend in a dogleg. To prevent key seats, doglegs should not be created at all.

High Bottom-hole Temperature

In deep wellbores or places with really high geothermal gradient, extremely high bottom-hole temperatures can occur. These high temperatures can cause drilling problems due to the accelerated thickening of water-based drilling fluids. An increase in viscosity and density of the drilling may cause tools to get stuck, lost circulation, and a reduction in penetration rates. Extremely high bottom-hole temperatures can be avoided by using oil-based muds.

Boma Julius: Developing Careers in the Oil and Gas Sector

A large number of people have the intense desire to either get a career in oil and gas or further their current careers in the field. However, this is a setback due to the high cost of training and study abroad.

That is why Boma Julius, Founder of Globat Skills oil and gas started this training institute. This is to help train individuals right here in Nigeria and save them the expense of traveling abroad to get the same training. Globat Skills is affiliated with other reputable training institutes that assist with international certification for trainees.

These and more were covered during the interview between Boma Julius and @vanguardnews Nigeria. To read the full excerpt, kindly click: https://www.vanguardngr.com/2019/12/boma-julius-developing-careers-in-the-oil-and-gas-sector/ or click the link in bio. 

oil workers should follow safety tips at all times

Safety on an Oil Rig

Oil rig accidents happen in their hundreds yearly due to poor safety measures, however, many of these accidents do not make it to the news. This doesn’t douse the seriousness of these accidents because there are people who would never forget them such as the victims and witnesses.

Oil rig workers need to always be aware of the dangers of their jobs and take precautions as necessary as their lives may very well depend on it. Natural elements such as a heavy downpour or even a light rainfall can be extremely dangerous. But even less ominous conditions such as too much humidity or sunlight can be equally dangerous on an oil rig. 

So how do you stay safe on an oil rig? Below are 5 effective ways of staying safe on an oil rig:

  1. Use Effective Lighting

    Reliable lighting is extremely important on an oil rig out on sea because it gets darks easily and quickly. When there’s a storm, when the sun sets, or even when a light goes out can bring on instant darkness. An oil rig is not a place to test one’s ability to adapt to darkness.
    Adequate lighting should be provided and installed with safety signs that will help everyone function at optimal capacity.

  2. Protect the Machines

    Human interaction is limited on most oil rigs as you are living and working hundreds of miles from any form of civilization. Access to oil rigs is by helicopter. Machines are often oil rig workers best friend, they need to be treated right in order to continue to perform at optimum capacity.
    Accidents and injuries can be avoided through proper training on how to use these machines.

  3. Have Repair and Safety Tool Boxes

    You can never be too safe on an oil rig. Have repair toolboxes, first-aid boxes, safety boxes in abundance. Always replace what is short in supply immediately. You are working miles away from immediate response, hence it is wise to always be prepared.

  4. Keep Work Surfaces Slip-proof

    This point may sound like rocket science since a rig is surrounded by nothing but water. But, if there are no storms or rainfall, keeping the rig surface dry is quite easy and sometimes boring.
    Workers should always wear sturdy, waterproof, non-slip boots to aid walking. Rig surfaces should also be dried constantly to avoid disasters.

  5. Have an Emergency Response Plan

    Develop a plan based on the rig, the group and the weather conditions of the area. In addition to having a plan, rig workers should endeavour to master the plan in the case of eventualities. 

Safety measures for an offshore oil rig are inexhaustible. These safety measures vary depending on the size of the rig, the number of workers and weather conditions. Safety plans should be developed accordingly.

Globat Skills Courses

At Globat Skills, we take pride in delivering high-quality training to our students and corporate clients. We teach courses that are of high industry-standard. Courses that guarantee your move to the next stage in your career journey.

Previously, individuals and corporate bodies had to go abroad to learn the skills that would keep them at the top of their game in the oil and gas industry. The CEO of Globat Skills, Boma Femi Julius, who is a seasoned oil and gas engineer, saw this gap and felt the pull to fill it after being a victim of the high cost of going abroad to learn these valuable skills.

By partnering with other seasoned professionals, he was able to bring valuable knowledge and skills home. This, of course, reduced the cost to a very affordable rate. Now, individuals and corporate clients no longer have to go abroad to get this knowledge. Globat Skills has consistently delivered knowledge necessary to scale in the oil and gas sector.

The recent partnership with RCES Training only buttresses the impact that Globat Skills is making.

For a full list of the courses Globat Skills offers, kindly click this link: Globat Skills x RCES Courses

 

RCES TRAINING PARTNERSHIP WITH GLOBAT SKILLS

It is no secret that the oil and gas industry is always evolving and growing. That also means that the need for personnel and skilled hands is always in high demand. Being able to identify this gap and proffer a solution to it is what will/can be the difference in the industry as a whole. Training partnership is one way to bridge this gap.

GLOBAT SKILLS

Globat skills oil and gas training clearly identified this gap and began proferring solutions to it over 20 years ago. They identified that it was very costly for current and intending oil and gas professionals to go abroad for routine training. Training that would help them stay relevant in the industry. These courses were/are highly necessary for not only helping individuals stay relevant but also helping them understand better ways to do things. They also learn industry best practices. Globat skills offer a range of oil and gas courses that are taught by industry experts. These experts have years of experience in the field. 

RCES OIL AND GAS TRAINING

At Globat skills, our mission is to bring affordable and highly beneficial training to companies and individuals in the oil and gas sector to help foster growth and improvement. That is why Globat skills have partnered with RCES oil and gas training who share the same goal and vision as Globat skills. Hard work, integrity, and quality service delivery are the foundation of RCES oil and gas. They aim to provide safety consultation, training, and manpower outsourcing services in the oil and gas industry.

The training partnership between Globat skills and RCES is one that will bring about even greater opportunities. It will also increase access to affordable and high-quality oil and gas training to companies and individuals. This comes at no compromise to the quality of training they offer. 

Click this link to view and download our courses. Explore our website for more.

Drilling Fluids in Oil and Gas

What are drilling fluids?

Drilling fluid, which is also referred to as drilling mud, is used to aid the drilling of boreholes into the earth. It is used in exploration drilling rigs, and also while drilling oil and natural gas wells. Drilling fluids can also be used for less complex drilling tasks such as the drilling of water wells. 

There are two major types of drilling fluids for exploration: Water-based drilling fluids and oil-based drilling fluids. 

Water-based drilling fluids

As the name implies, water-based drilling fluids use water as the continuous phase. They are also used to drill almost 80% of all wells. The base fluid may be freshwater, seawater, brine, etc. Water-based drilling fluids are cheap as the base material is easy to get. Additives are used to change the density and viscosity. It is also used to control filtrate losses. They are particularly good for curing mud losses. When coarse bridging materials are pumped, mud losses are often cured. However, water-based drilling fluids have a major disadvantage which is that they are reactive to clays and lead to time-dependent borehole problems. 

Oil-based drilling fluids

The oil-based drilling fluid was formulated to help address issues which the drilling sector faced. Some of such problems include:

  • Stuck pipe and torque
  • Increased downhole temperatures
  • Formation clays that swell or reacted after exposure to water-based drilling fluids. 
  • Contaminants

Oil-based fluids are formulated with mineral oil, diesel, and paraffin. One major advantage of oil-based drilling fluid is its lower well friction, therefore, they are used in long-reach wells where friction is critical. Capillary pressure prevents oil from invading a water-wet rock.

However, one main disadvantage of oil-based drilling fluids is that if circulation losses arise during drilling, it is difficult to stop the losses. A severe loss case can be time-consuming to cure. 

Conflict Resolution in Oil and Gas

Being at the top matters because there’s room at the top for only a few. Scarcity makes being at the top worth something… Where does the scarcity come from? It comes from the hurdles that the markets and our society set up.” – Seth Godin, THE DIP.

 

Whether you already work in the oil and gas sector or you currently aspire to, becoming an expert is an idea that likely appeals to you.

Experts are supervisors, managers, and senior executives who oversee the most important activities and get the highest pay.

They are consultants who get called in to offer advice and strategic direction when things don’t go as desired.

Experts are the experienced oil and gas workers who get invites to join boards, give a speech or cofound startups in the sector.

Being an expert is cool.

But as bestselling marketing author, marketer and former Yahoo executive, Seth Godin writes in his groundbreaking book, The Dip, getting to the top of any field – the oil and gas industry included – is always tough.

Demands of Being an Expert

There are many hurdles that you’ll face on the road to expertise. The demand for intellectual ability is just one of them.

In the oil and gas sector, particularly, your ability to work cordially with others and to contribute to the group’s effort is an equally important factor. This is because most of the tasks are performed by teams of professionals – from the upstream to the midstream and downstream sectors.

Workgroups are expected to act in unison, support each other, and achieve the set target with military-like commitment. But even in groups driven by obsessive goals, such work standards are unlikely to be met. Many times, these failures can be traced to conflict.

Workplace conflict is a serious disagreement between workers. It could be a small issue; perhaps an argument between roustabouts where one party reacts verbally to gossipy coworkers, or a big issue; a situation where the verbal argument escalates into a violent fight.

Various factors contribute to conflicts at work. Some of the more common factors are lack of effective communication, different work ethics, values and opinions, contrasting personalities, and workplace bullying or harassment.

How workplace conflict can derail your career in the oil and gas sector.

If you’re ambitious, diligent and hope to become an industry expert one day, unresolved conflict in the workplace can affect your professional aspirations in the following ways:

  1. Conflict can reduce your self-esteem.

According to conflict researchers Bernard Omisore and Ashimi Abiodun, workplace conflict can affect your satisfaction at work, increase your anxiety, and exclude you from others even during group activities.

Conflict can also cause you stress and pressure, as emphasized in this Chron.com article, “In some instances, organization members may avoid meetings to prevent themselves from experiencing stress and stress-related symptoms.”

Stress, anxiety, and exclusion are all closely related to low self-esteem – the measure of love and regard that you have for yourself.

Conflict can make you doubt your abilities in an unhealthy way. You compare yourself to others and you doubt your strengths; leading to low self-esteem. This is likelier to happen if you are always on the receiving end of workplace disagreements, for example; if your supervisor and coworkers constantly berate you for having a different attitude or opinion during group activities.

Is self-esteem important for success?

Yes.

“Without self-esteem, one lacks the courage to attempt new challenges and is hesitant to interact with others.” Goes an evergreen statement in an article by Sandra Hirst and Barbara Metcalf in a 1984 issue of the Journal of Gerontological Nursing.

Oil and gas workers with high self-esteem are more motivated, can withstand difficult situations, and are pro-active in their professional developments. They’re also happier, more comfortable to work with and they are always the first on the line for a promotion.

  1. Conflict can affect your productivity.

How many times have you been mentally distracted at work because of recent disagreements with a coworker? How often has this tainted your performance?

According to a whitepaper by the Mediation Training Institute at Eckerd College,

“Poorly managed or dysfunctional conflict hurts productivity, escalates out-of-pocket costs, increases risks, degrades decision making, and impedes an organization’s ability to achieve strategic goals.”

Worrying about the conflict, complaining to other coworkers about the conflict and avoiding those involved in the conflict are unproductive tactics that will hinder your ability to cope with new challenges and can put your employment at risk.

  1. Conflict can endanger your job.

A study by Psychometrics Canada Ltd, published in 2009, revealed that “Over 81% of human resource personnel have seen someone leave an organization as a result of conflict, and almost half (43%) have seen someone fired because of it.”

Although the focus of the study was on the Canadian workforce, their findings on the effects of conflict are strikingly similar to what is obtainable around the world.

Unresolved conflicts could force you to resign.

Also, when you respond to a conflict in an unproductive, violent, or undesirable manner – such as fighting, cursing, lying or threatening coworkers – you may lose your job.

Losing your job can affect your self-esteem, your interpersonal skills, and professional ambitions.

Bernard Omisore and Abiodun Ashimi’s “10 Mistakes To Avoid During A Conflict.”

Want to improve your conflict management or resolution skills? You can start from the tips provided by Bernard Omisore and Abiodun Ashimi in their paper on organizational conflict in the International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences;

Excellent communication can strengthen relationships and develop trust and support, while poor communication can create mistrust and misunderstanding.  Some negative attitude and communication patterns that worsen the conflict situation in relationships include:

  • Avoiding Conflict Altogether:

    Rather than discussing disagreements in a calm, respectful way, some people do not say anything to their partner until they are ready to explode, and then they are prepared to speak in an angry, hurtful manner. This seems to be less stressful to avoid the conflict situation, but usually, it causes more stress to both parties as tensions rise to more significant conflict.

  • Being Defensive:

    Rather than understanding the complaints of a partner and his/her point of view, defensive people steadfastly deny their wrong behavior and work hard to avoid looking at the possibility that they could continue to contribute to a problem. It creates long-term problems when partners do not feel listened to and understood. In this case, unresolved conflicts continue to grow.

  • Over Generalizing:

    While addressing complaints, a person should not use generalizations. For example, he/she should avoid starting sentences with “you always,” “you never,” “you always come home late” or “you never do what I want you to do!” It is irritating to the other person. Bringing up past conflicts can increase the level of the current conflict.

  • Being right:

    Some people decide the “right” way look at things and the “wrong” way to look at things, and they are sure that only their view on things is right. It is necessary not to demand that your partner see things the same way and don’t take it as a personal attack if there are differences in opinion. It is important to reach a compromise and remember that two points of view can both be valid.

  • “Psycho Analysing” / Mind – Reading:

    Sometimes people think negative about a partner because they give faulty interpretations of their actions. They do this because they do not think about the thoughts and feelings of the partner, and it creates hostility and misunderstandings. It is essential to let the other person express his/her thoughts and feelings.

  • Forgetting To Listen:

    Some people are not good listeners: they interrupt, roll their eyes, and release whatever they are going to say next. People should develop listening skills to strengthen the communication process.

  • Playing The Blame Game:

    Some people in conflict situations always criticize the other person. They always find ways or embarrassing others Instead of blaming the other person it is necessary to view conflict as an opportunity to analyze the situation objectively and understand the needs of both parties and come up with a solution that is helpful to both parties.

  • Trying To “Win” The Argument:

    People who are focused on “winning” the argument can lose the relationship. There should be mutual understanding and respect

  • Making Character Attacks:

    Sometimes negative actions from a person can be blown up into a personality flow.  This can lead to negative perceptions on both sides.  It is important to respect the person even if he/she has bad behavior.

  • Stone Walling:

    Some people behave like a “stonewall” and refuse to talk or listen to their partners when disagreements occur. Stonewalling does not solve the problem but creates hard feelings and damages relationships.

References.

  1. Hirst, S & Metcalf, B. Promoting Self Esteem. Journal of Gerontological Nursing. 1984;(2).
  2. Omisore, B & Abiodun, A. Organizational Conflicts: Causes, Effects, and Remedies. International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences. 2014;3(6).
  3. Psychometrics Canada Limited. Warring Egos, Toxic Individuals, Feeble Leadership: A study of conflict in the Canadian workplace. 2009.

Download Our Free Case Study

Download our free case study.

Discover how GLOBAT oil and gas skills worked to transform Benjamin Bandele. He was a former Quality Assurance and Quality Control (QA/QC) trainee. Globat skills transformed him into a promising mud engineer at Librod Energy Services Limited.

The case study is free, easy to read and quick to download.

Who should download this case study?

If you aspire to work in oil and gas or you currently do so, you will benefit from learning about how Globat oil and gas skills is helping other ambitious professionals like you nurture and achieve their goals.

Human Resources (HR) Executives interested in the development of their employees’ skills and capabilities will also discover why they should make Globat their first choice.

Case Study Globat

OIL RESERVOIR: OIL AND GAS DEPOSITS

Formation

Oil and natural gas are formed by organic matter deep in the earth by dead plants and animals. This formation typically takes millions of years under very specific pressure and temperature conditions.

Process

When plants and animals die, they are exposed to ambient air or oxygen-rich water which causes it to oxidize. All elements contained in the matter combine with oxygen in the air and breaks down into the water, carbon dioxide, nitrates, sulfates and phosphates that return to nourish new plants.

 

Some of this organic matter escape this fate and are transported by the water where they end up at the bottom of the sea or in large continental lakes. At a depth of 2,000 meters and temperature of 100oC, kerogen begins to release hydrocarbons. Between 2,000 to 3,800 meters, it turns to oil. This depth interval is also known as the oil window. Production of hydrocarbons peaks at 3,800 to 5,000 meters. Liquids become lighter and gradually turn to methane gas. This depth interval is referred to as the gas window.

Petroleum Reservoir

A petroleum reservoir is a subsurface pool of hydrocarbons contained in porous or fractured rock formations. Reservoir rocks are typically sandstone reservoirs and carbonate reservoirs. Sandstone reservoirs are of a higher quality because it contains a primary mineral called quartz which is strong and stable. The carbonate reservoirs are formed from coral, shells and other biogenic materials making them less solid than sandstone. There are two broad categories of petroleum reservoirs: the conventional and the unconventional reservoirs. In conventional reservoirs, naturally occurring hydrocarbons such as crude oil and natural gas are trapped by overlying rock formations with low permeability. However, in unconventional reservoirs, the rocks have high porosity and also low permeability that keep the hydrocarbons trapped in place. This does not require a cap rock. Petroleum reservoirs are found using hydrocarbon exploration processes.

Conclusion

The proportion of liquids (oil) and gas generated in this process depends on the type of source rock. More oil than gas will be produced if the organic debris is composed mostly of animal origin. However, if the organic debris consists of mostly plant debris, the source rock will produce mostly gas.

It takes about 60 million years for dead animals to become liquid hydrocarbons with an average sedementation of 50 meters every million years.